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Textiles Quality Control Standards and Testing Procedures

Flame resistance (fabric's ability to resist burning)

Crocking resistance (fabric's colorfastness)

Ultra-violet light resistance (fabric's resistance to fading)

Physical properties (fabric's resistance to pilling, seam slippage, and tearing)

Abrasion (fabric's ability to withstand surface wear from rubbing)

  

Flame resistance

(Fabric's ability to resist burning)

Note: Test is dictated by the intended end use for the fabric.

Application Passes

Upholstery Vertical Flame Test - California Bulletin 117 Section E

Panels and Upholstered Walls Tunnel Test - ASTM E 84 (unadhered method)

Vertical Flame Test:

Fabric is mounted in a vertical holder and exposed to an open flame for a specified amount

of time. Once the flame is removed, the after flame and char length of the test sample are

measured against various code standards to establish a classification.

Tunnel Test:

Fabric is clamped (unadhered method) or glued (adhered method) to a substrate, which is

placed on the ceiling of test chamber and ignited by a flame below. Fabric is then evaluated

for the density of the smoke formed, the amount of fuel contributed and the extent of the

flame spread. Rating is established based on these factors.

Crocking resistance

(Fabric's colorfastness)

Application Passes

Upholstery AATCC 8 Dry Crocking, Class 4 minimum

Wet Crocking, Class 3 minimum

Panels and Upholstered Walls AATCC 8, Class 3 minimum

To measure for colorfastness to crocking, the fabric to be tested is rubbed with squares of

white cotton fabric (wet and dry) under controlled pressure for a specified number of times.

The amount of color transferred to the white test squares is matched to a control chart and

a rating is established.

Class 5 = no color transfer

Class 1 = high degree of color transfer

Ultra-violet light resistance

(Fabric's resistance to fading)

Application Passes

Upholstery AATCC 16A or AATCC 16E

Class 4 minimum at 40 hours

Panels and Upholstered Walls AATCC 16A or AATCC 16E

Class 4 minimum at 40 hours

To measure for colorfastness to light, the fabric to be tested is exposed under specific

conditions to a controlled light source which simulates the sun's rays. At timed intervals,

the test swatch is compared to a gray scale and the degree of fading is rated.

Class 5 = no fading

Class 1 = high degree of fading

Physical properties

(Fabric's resistance to pilling, seam slippage, and tearing)

Application Passes

Upholstery Brush Pill ASTM D3511, 3 minimum

Breaking Strength ASTM D3597-D1682-64

50 lbs. Minimum in warp & weft

Seam Slippage ASTM D3597-D434

25 lbs. minimum in warp & weft

Panels and Upholstered Walls Breaking Strength D5034 Grab Method

35 lbs. Minimum in warp & weft

Seam Slippage ASTM D3597-434

25 lbs. Minimum in warp & weft

Brush Pill Test:

Evaluates pilling, which occurs when loose fibers work to the surface after the fabric is

subjected to abrasion.

Nylon bristles are used to rub the surface of the fabric for a specific amount of time. The

number of balls or pills that form on the surface of the fabric are counted, and the fabric

is rated accordingly.

Class 5 = no pilling

Class 1 = severe pilling

Breaking Strength Test:

Measures fabric's ability to resist tearing or breaking when subjected to tension.

Fabric is gripped by clamps at one end while weight is applied to pull it from the other end.

(Performed in both the warp and filling directions.) The number of pounds required to cause

the fabric to break or tear determines the rating.

50 lbs. minimum = upholstery

35 lbs. minimum = panel and vertical surface fabrics

Seam Slippage Test:

To evaluate condition of fabric when pulled apart at a sewn seam.

A seam is sewn in the fabric, which is then clamped at one end and pulled by weights at

the other end. (Performed in both warp and filling directions.) The weight is increased until

seam separates a specified distance. The number of pounds required to cause this separation

determines the rating.

25 lbs. minimum = upholstery

25 lbs. minimum = panel and vertical surface fabrics

Abrasion

(Fabric's ability to withstand surface wear from rubbing)

Application Passes

Upholstery ASTM 3597 modified (#10 cotton duck)

15,000 double rubs Wyzenbeek method

ASTM D4966 (21 oz. weight)

20,000 rubs Martindale method

Heavy Duty Upholstery ASTM 3597 modified (#10 cotton duck)

30,000 double rubs Wyzenbeek method

ASTM D4966 (21 oz. Weight)

40,000 rubs Martindale method

Wyzenbeek Test (modified):

Fabric is pulled taut and rubbed in both the warp and filling directions, using a piece of cotton

duck fabric as the abradant. The number of cycles, or double rubs, endured before the fabric

shows "noticeable wear" is counted and determines the fabric's abrasion rating.

15,000 = general contract upholstery

30,000 = heavy duty upholstery

Martindale Test:

Fabric is mounted flat and rubbed in a figure eight-like motion using a piece of worsted wool

cloth as the abradant. The number of cycles endured before the fabric shows an objectionable

change in appearance is counted and determines the fabric's abrasion rating.

20,000 = general contract upholstery

40,000 = heavy duty upholstery